SEI-3: Integration and Energy Storage

Solar Energy Research Center for India and the United States (SERIIUS)



Solar Energy Integration



Solar energy integration and storage analysis



To define the potential deployment options and technology needs for solar energy systems in India in light of the complexity of the current Indian electric grid and off-grid energy needs. To employ analysis and multiscale modeling of various solar energy deployment scenarios in India including grid analysis and the potential benefits of storage to address the challenge of understanding and defining the potential deployment options for solar energy systems in India in light of the complexity of the current Indian electric grid. Assess off-grid options for solar energy at multiple scales. To identify and capitalize on synergistic overlap with U.S. initiatives, needs, and capabilities.


Engineering/economic assessment of the storage options for off-grid power generation in remote locations and also grid-connected applications including frequency regulation, producing base-load power, load-following power, and peak shaving (annual).


Assessment of options to enhance the life of sodium sulfur rechargeable battery using an oxide-based corrosion-resistant coating using a combination of computational modeling and validation by select experiments on coating and electrolyte thickness for enhanced performance (24 months).


Models and select experiments for improving the performance of Li-ion batteries by varying cathode and anode thickness, electrical resistivity, and choice of separator (54 months).

Task 1: Grid analysis and solar energy integration into the grid

Understand and quantify key technical aspects for grid integration, management of intermittency, and load balancing. Assess the technical and technology policy issues associated with large-scale integration of solar with the grid and the viability of various energy storage options for Indian conditions with a focus on:

Investigate the potential for demand response (DR) potential contributions to buffering variability of solar power by using actual DR data as they become available or simulating such systems in the absence of live DR programs in India. Using existing utility pricing, we will also compare the costs of such programs with the costs of other methods of compensating for variability.

Task 2: Energy storage analysis and technology development

Engineering/economic analysis and assessment and technology development of energy storage technologies for solar energy integration. (Analysis to provide research focus across possible storage technologies and options in different on-grid and off-grid multiscale deployment scenarios. Provide integration through analysis and at process level.)

For electrochemical approaches, various modalities of storage connectivity will be examined and analyzed. The first involves a photoelectrochemical approach where water-splitting reactions are promoted to generate hydrogen (and the hydrogen is then used in a fuel cell on demand to produce electricity). The second is the use of Li-ion battery systems to connect to solar PV systems.

Task 3: Decentralized and rural applications

Analysis and assessment of decentralized options for India. Many of India’s villages still lack sufficient access to the national transmission and distribution grid. Decentralized power generation using locally available resources such biomass, solar, and wind is an opportunity for meeting the energy requirements of such locations in the near future. In fact, the Nehru mission has a target of 2 GW of off-grid solar power. Develop and manage interface with India and U.S. solar energy deployment initiatives.