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CSP-1: High-Temperature, Pressurized CO2 Receiver

Solar Energy Research Center for India and the United States (SERIIUS)


Multiscale Concentrating Solar Power


High-temperature, high-pressure, closed-cycle CO2 Brayton cycle


To design, optimize, fabricate, and test suitable cavity receivers that can be used to provide heat to a high-temperature air/CO2 Brayton cycle. Both direct and indirect methods of heating the air or CO2 are being considered.

Project Milestones:

C1: Receiver concept development and exploration of preliminary designs (6 months).

C2: CFD modeling and optimized design (18 months).

C3: High-pressure CO2 test loop (24 months).

C4: Detailed design and prototyping (36 months).

C5: Testing and design refinement (60 months)

Task 1: Modeling, engineering design, and prototyping

  • Indian Institute of Science (IISc)
  • Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB)
  • Clique Developments Ltd.

Initial concept development of cavity configurations employing porous media, based on high-temperature materials such as ceramics (with and without phase-change materials) will be performed by IISc-Bangalore. The CFD modeling and preliminary designs of the high-temperature receiver-cum-heat exchanger will be performed by Sandia. Clique and IITB have responsibility for detailed engineering design and prototype manufacturing of the receiver/heat exchanger.

Task 2: Testing, validation, and optimization

  • Indian Institute of Science (IISc)
  • Clique Developments Ltd.
  • Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB)
  • Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

A high-temperature CO2 test loop with operating pressures up to 70 bar will be developed at IISc-Bangalore, first with simulated heat sources, and subsequently with solar heating with an optical testing system (to be developed by Clique). Testing of receivers will initially operate with a combination of a heat exchanger and a throttling device, which will emulate a turbo expander. The CO2 test loop will be designed to provide flexibility of modularly testing other small-scale expanders.